What Do Google's Leaked Spidering & Ranking Factors Mean?

Earlier this month we reported on Google's Spam Score Details, but no one knew what it meant exactly. Todd Malicoat took a peek into the Google algorithm a week ago with his best guesses on what each value represents. I am not going to go through all the details, but Todd makes some smart and detailed responses for each listed value listed in the spam score. Re-inspired by Rand.